Kleisthenische Reformen

Projekttitel: eManual Alte Geschichte
Modul [optional]:
Autor_in: Aristoteles
Lizenz: CC-BY-NC-SA

Arist. Ath. Pol. 20,1-23,2 und 25,1-2-Original

καταλυθείσης δὲ τῆς τυραννίδος, ἐστασίαζον πρὸς ἀλλήλους Ἰσαγόρας ὁ Τεισάνδρου φίλος ὢν τῶν τυράννων, καὶ Κλεισθένης τοῦ γένους ὢν τῶν Ἀλκμεωνιδῶν. ἡττώμενος δὲ ταῖς ἑταιρείαις ὁ Κλεισθένης, προσηγάγετο τὸν δῆμον, ἀποδιδοὺς τῷ πλήθει τὴν πολιτείαν. [2] ὁ δὲ Ἰσαγόρας ἐπιλειπόμενος τῇ δυνάμει, πάλιν ἐπικαλεσάμενος τὸν Κλεομένην ὄντα ἑαυτῷ ξένον, συνέπεισεν ἐλαύνειν τὸ ἅγος, διὰ τὸ τοὺς Ἀλκμεωνίδας δοκεῖν εἶναι τῶν ἐναγῶν. [3] ὑπεξελθόντος δὲ τοῦ Κλεισθένους, ἀφικόμενος ὁ Κλεομένης μετ᾽ ὀλίγων, ἡγηλάτει τῶν Ἀθηναίων ἑπτακοσίας οἰκίας. ταῦτα δὲ διαπραξάμενος, τὴν μὲν βουλὴν ἐπειρᾶτο καταλύειν, Ἰσαγόραν δὲ καὶ τριακοσίους τῶν φίλων μετ᾽ αὐτοῦ κυρίους καθιστάναι τῆς πόλεως. τῆς δὲ βουλῆς ἀντιστάσης καὶ συναθροισθέντος τοῦ πλήθους, οἱ μὲν περὶ τὸν Κλεομένην καὶ Ἰσαγόραν κατέφυγον εἰς τὴν ἀκρόπολιν, ὁ δὲ δῆμος δύο μὲν ἡμέρας προσκαθεζόμενος ἐπολιόρκει, τῇ δὲ τρίτῃ Κλεομένην μὲν καὶ τοὺς μετ᾽ αὐτοῦ πάντας ἀφεῖσαν ὑποσπόνδους, Κλεισθένην δὲ καὶ τοὺς ἄλλους φυγάδας μετεπέμψαντο. κατασχόντος δὲ τοῦ δήμου τὰ πράγματα, [4] Κλεισθένης ἡγεμὼν ἦν καὶ τοῦ δήμου προστάτης. αἰτιώτατοι γὰρ σχεδὸν ἐγένοντο τῆς ἐκβολῆς τῶν τυράννων οἱ Ἀλκμεωνίδαι, καὶ στασιάζοντες τὰ πολλὰ διετέλεσαν. [5] ἔτι δὲ πρότερον τῶν Ἀλκμεωνιδῶν Κήδων ἐπέθετο τοῖς τυράννοις, διὸ καὶ ᾖδον καὶ εἰς τοῦτον ἐν τοῖς σκολιοῖς:“ἔγχει καὶ Κήδωνι, διάκονε, μηδ᾽ ἐπιλήθου, εἰ χρὴ τοῖς ἀγαθοῖς ἀνδράσιν οἰνοχοεῖν.
[21] διὰ μὲν οὖν ταύτας τὰς αἰτίας ἐπίστευεν ὁ δῆμος τῷ Κλεισθένει. τότε δὲ τοῦ πλήθους προεστηκώς, ἔτει τετάρτῳ μετὰ τὴν τῶν τυράννων κατάλυσιν, [2] ἐπὶ Ἰσαγόρου ἄρχοντος, πρῶτον μὲν συνένειμε πάντας εἰς δέκα φυλὰς ἀντὶ τῶν τεττάρων, ἀναμεῖξαι βουλόμενος, ὅπως μετάσχωσι πλείους τῆς πολιτείας: ὅθεν ἐλέχθη καὶ τὸ μὴ φυλοκρινεῖν, ͅͅ πρὸς τοὺς ἐξετάζειν τὰ γένη βουλομένους. [3] ἔπειτα τὴν βουλὴν πεντακοσίους ἀντὶ τετρακοσίων κατέστησεν, πεντήκοντα ἐξ ἑκάστης φυλῆς. τότε δ᾽ ἦσαν ἑκατόν. διὰ τοῦτο δὲ οὐκ εἰς δώδεκα φυλὰς συνέταξεν, ὅπως αὐτῷ μὴ συμβαίνῃ μερίζειν πρὸς τὰς προϋπαρχούσας τριττῦς. ἦσαν γὰρ ἐκ δ# φυλῶν δώδεκα τριττύες, ὥστ᾽ οὐ συνέπιπτεν ἂν ἀναμίσγεσθαι τὸ πλῆθος. [4] διένειμε δὲ καὶ τὴν χώραν κατὰ δήμους τριάκοντα μέρη, δέκα μὲν τῶν περὶ τὸ ἄστυ, δέκα δὲ τῆς παραλίας, δέκα δὲ τῆς μεσογείου, καὶ ταύτας ἐπονομάσας τριττῦς, ἐκλήρωσεν τρεῖς εἰς τὴν φυλὴν ἑκάστην, ὅπως ἑκάστη μετέχῃ πάντων τῶν τόπων. καὶ δημότας ἐποίησεν ἀλλήλων τοὺς οἰκοῦντας ἐν ἑκάστῳ τῶν δήμων, ἵνα μὴ πατρόθεν προσαγορεύοντες ἐξελέγχωσιν τοὺς νεοπολίτας, ἀλλὰ τῶν δήμων ἀναγορεύωσιν. ὅθεν καὶ καλοῦσιν Ἀθηναῖοι σφᾶς αὐτοὺς τῶν δήμων. [5] κατέστησε δὲ καὶ δημάρχους, τὴν αὐτὴν ἔχοντας ἐπιμέλειαν τοῖς πρότερον ναυκράροις. καὶ γὰρ τοὺς δήμους ἀντὶ τῶν ναυκραριῶν ἐποίησεν. προσηγόρευσε δὲ τῶν δήμων τοὺς μὲν ἀπὸ τῶν τόπων, τοὺς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν κτισάντων: οὐ γὰρ ἅπαντες ὑπῆρχον ἐν τοῖς τόποις. [6] τὰ δὲ γένη καὶ τὰς φρατρίας καὶ τὰς ἱερωσύνας εἴασεν ἔχειν ἑκάστους κατὰ τὰ πάτρια. ταῖς δὲ φυλαῖς ἐποίησεν ἐπωνύμους ἐκ τῶν προκριθέντων ἑκατὸν ἀρχηγετῶν, οὓς ἀνεῖλεν ἡ Πυθία δέκα.
[22] τούτων δὲ γενομένων δημοτικωτέρα πολὺ τῆς Σόλωνος ἐγένετο ἡ πολιτεία. καὶ γὰρ συνέβη τοὺς μὲν Σόλωνος νόμους ἀφανίσαι τὴν τυραννίδα διὰ τὸ μὴ χρῆσθαι, καινοὺς δ᾽ ἄλλους θεῖναι τὸν Κλεισθένη στοχαζόμενον τοῦ πλήθους, ἐν οἷς ἐτέθη καὶ ὁ περὶ τοῦ ὀστρακισμοῦ νόμος. [2] πρῶτον μὲν οὖν ἔτει πέμπτῳ μετὰ ταύτην τὴν κατάστασιν, ἐφ᾽ Ἑρμοκρέοντος ἄρχοντος, τῇ βουλῇ τοῖς πεντακοσίοις τὸν ὅρκον ἐποίησαν, ὃν ἔτι καὶ νῦν ὀμνύουσιν. ἔπειτα τοὺς στρατηγοὺς ᾑροῦντο κατὰ φυλάς, ἐξ ἑκάστης φυλῆς ἕνα, τῆς δὲ ἁπάσης στρατιᾶς ἡγεμὼν ἦν ὁ πολέμαρχος. [3] ἔτει δὲ μετὰ ταῦτα δωδεκάτῳ νικήσαντες τὴν ἐν Μαραθῶνι μάχην, ἐπὶ Φαινίππου ἄρχοντος, διαλιπόντες ἔτη δύο μετὰ τὴν νίκην, θαρροῦντος ἤδη τοῦ δήμου, τότε πρῶτον ἐχρήσαντο τῷ νόμῳ τῷ περὶ τὸν ὀστρακισμόν, ὃς ἐτέθη διὰ τὴν ὑποψίαν τῶν ἐν ταῖς δυνάμεσιν, ὅτι Πεισίστρατος δημαγωγὸς καὶ στρατηγὸς ὢν τύραννος κατέστη. [4] καὶ πρῶτος ὠστρακίσθη τῶν ἐκείνου συγγενῶν Ἵππαρχος Χάρμου Κολλυτεύς, δι᾽ ὃν καὶ μάλιστα τὸν νόμον ἔθηκεν ὁ Κλεισθένης, ἐξελάσαι βουλόμενος αὐτόν. οἱ γὰρ Ἀθηναῖοι τοὺς τῶν τυράννων φίλους, ὅσοι μὴ συνεξαμαρτάνοιεν ἐν ταῖς ταραχαῖς, εἴων οἰκεῖν τὴν πόλιν, χρώμενοι τῇ εἰωθυίᾳ τοῦ δήμου πρᾳότητι: ὧν ἡγεμὼν καὶ προστάτης ἦν Ἵππαρχος. […] [23] τότε μὲν οὖν μέχρι τούτου προῆλθεν ἡ πόλις, ἅμα τῇ δημοκρατίᾳ κατὰ μικρὸν αὐξανομένη: μετὰ δὲ τὰ Μηδικὰ πάλιν ἴσχυσεν ἡ ἐν Ἀρείῳ πάγῳ βουλὴ καὶ διῴκει τὴν πόλιν, οὐδενὶ δόγματι λαβοῦσα τὴν ἡγεμονίαν, ἀλλὰ διὰ τὸ γενέσθαι τῆς περὶ Σαλαμῖνα ναυμαχίας αἰτία. τῶν γὰρ στρατηγῶν ἐξαπορησάντων τοῖς πράγμασι, καὶ κηρυξάντων σῴζειν ἕκαστον ἑαυτόν, πορίσασα δραχμὰς ἑκάστῳ ὀκτὼ διέδωκε καὶ ἐνεβίβασεν εἰς τὰς ναῦς. [2] διὰ ταύτην δὴ τὴν αἰτίαν παρεχώρουν αὐτῆς τῷ ἀξιώματι, καὶ ἐπολιτεύθησαν Ἀθηναῖοι καλῶς καὶ κατὰ τούτους τοὺς καιρούς. συνέβη γὰρ αὐτοῖς κατὰ τὸν χρόνον τοῦτον τά τε περὶ τὸν πόλεμον ἀσκῆσαι, καὶ παρὰ τοῖς Ἕλλησιν εὐδοκιμῆσαι, καὶ τὴν τῆς θαλάττης ἡγεμονίαν λαβεῖν, ἀκόντων Λακεδαιμονίων.
[…] [25] ἡ μὲν οὖν τροφὴ τῷ δήμῳ διὰ τούτων ἐγίγνετο. ἔτη δὲ ἑπτακαίδεκα μάλιστα μετὰ τὰ Μηδικὰ διέμεινεν ἡ πολιτεία προεστώτων τῶν Ἀρεοπαγιτῶν, καίπερ ὑποφερομένη κατὰ μικρόν. αὐξανομένου δὲ τοῦ πλήθους, γενόμενος τοῦ δήμου προστάτης Ἐφιάλτης ὁ Σοφωνίδου, ͅͅ δοκῶν καὶ ἀδωροδόκητος εἶναι καὶ δίκαιος πρὸς τὴν πολιτείαν, ἐπέθετο τῇ βουλῇ. [2] καὶ πρῶτον μὲν ἀνεῖλεν πολλοὺς τῶν Ἀρεοπαγιτῶν, ἀγῶνας ἐπιφέρων περὶ τῶν διῳκημένων. ἔπειτα τῆς βουλῆς ἐπὶ Κόνωνος ἄρχοντος ἅπαντα περιεῖλε τὰ ἐπίθετα δι᾽ ὧν ἦν ἡ τῆς πολιτείας φυλακή, καὶ τὰ μὲν τοῖς πεντακοσίοις, τὰ δὲ τῷ δήμῳ καὶ τοῖς δικαστηρίοις ἀπέδωκεν.

Text zum downloaden

 

Projekttitel: eManual Alte Geschichte
Modul [optional]:
Übersetzung: H. Rackmann
Lizenz: CC-BY-NC-SA

Text Übersetzung

When the tyranny had been put down, there was a period of faction-strife between Isagoras son of Teisander, who was a friend of the tyrants, and Cleisthenes, who belonged to the family of the Alcmaeonidae. Cleisthenes having got the worst of it in the Comradeships enlisted the people on his side, offering to hand over the government to the multitude. [2] Isagoras began to lose power, so he again called in the aid of Cleomenes, who was a great friend of his, and jointly persuaded him to drive out the curse, because the Alcmaeonidae were reputed to be a family that was under a curse. [3] Cleisthenes secretly withdrew, and Cleomenes with a few troops proceeded to expel as accursed seven hundred Athenian households; and having accomplished this he tried to put down the Council and set up Isagoras and three hundred of his friends with him in sovereign power over the state. But the Council resisted, and the multitude banded together, so the forces of Cleomenes and Isagoras took refuge in the Acropolis, and the people invested it and laid siege to it for two days. On the third day they let Cleomenes and his comrades go away under a truce, and sent for Cleisthenes and the other exiles to come back. [4] The people having taken control of affairs, Cleisthenes was their leader and was head of the people. For almost the chief initiative in the expulsion of the tyrants was taken by the Alcmaeonids, and they accomplished most of it by party faction. [5] And even before the Alcmaeonids Cedon had attacked the tyrants, owing to which people also sang in his honor in their catches:“ Now fill to Cedon, boy! let’s drink him too,If duty bids us toast good men and true.“
[21] These were the causes, therefore, that led the people to trust in Cleisthenes. And when this time he had become Chief of the multitude, in the fourth year after the deposition of the tyrants, in the archonship of Isagoras, [2] he first divided the whole body into ten tribes instead of the existing four, wishing to mix them up, in order that more might take part in the government; from which arose the saying, ‚Don’t draw distinctions between tribes,‘ addressed to those who want to inquire into people’s clans. [3] Next he made the Council to consist of five hundred members instead of four hundred, fifty from each Tribe, whereas under the old system there had been a hundred. This was the reason why he did not arrange them in twelve tribes, in order that he might not have to use the existing division of the Thirds (for the four Tribes contained twelve Thirds), with the result that the multitude would not have been mixed up. [4] He also portioned out the land among the demes into thirty parts, ten belonging to the suburbs, ten to the coast, and ten to the inland district; and he gave these parts the name of Thirds, and assigned them among the Tribes by lot, three to each, in order that each Tribe might have a share in all the districts. And he made all the inhabitants in each of the demes fellow-demesmen of one another, in order that they might not call attention to the newly enfranchised citizens by addressing people by their fathers‘ names, but designate people officially by their demes; owing to which Athenians in private life also use the names of their demes as surnames. [5] And he also appointed Demarchs, having the same duties as the former Ship-commissioners, for he put the demes in the place of the Ship-comissions. He named some of the demes from their localities, but others from their founders, for the demes were no longer all corresponding to the places. [6] The clans and brotherhoods and priesthoods belonging to the various demes he allowed to remain on the ancestral plan. As eponymous deities of the Tribes he instituted ten tutelary heroes selected by an oracle of the Pythian priestess from a previously chosen list of a hundred.
[22] These reforms made the constitution much more democratic than that of Solon; for it had come about that the tyranny had obliterated the laws of Solon by disuse, and Cleisthenes aiming at the multitude had instituted other new ones, including the enactment of the law about ostracism. [2] First of all, in the fifth year after these enactments, in the archonship of Hermocreon, they instituted the oath of induction for the Council of Five Hundred that is still in use. Next they began to elect the Generals by tribes, one from each tribe, while the whole army was under the command of the War-lord. [3] Eleven years afterwards came their victory in the battle of Marathon; and in the archonship of Phaenippus, two years after the victory, the people being now in high courage, they put in force for the first time the law about ostracism, which had been enacted owing to the suspicion felt against the men in the positions of power because Peisistratus when leader of the people and general set himself up as tyrant. [4] The first person banished by ostracism was one of his relatives, Hipparchus son of Charmus of the deme of Collytus, the desire to banish whom had been Cleisthenes‘ principal motive in making the law. For the Athenians permitted all friends of the tyrants that had not taken part with them in their offences during the disorders to dwell in the city, —in this the customary mildness of the people was displayed; and Hipparchus was the leader and chief of these persons. […] [23] At this date, therefore, the state had advanced to this point, growing by slow stages with the growth of the democracy; but after the Persian Wars the Council on the Areopagus became powerful again, and carried on the administration, having gained the leadership by no definite resolution but owing to its having been the cause of the naval battle of Salamis. For the Generals had been reduced to utter despair by the situation and had made a proclamation that every man should see to his own safety; but the Council provided a fund and distributed eight drachmas a head and got them to man the ships. [2] For this reason, therefore, the Generals gave place to the Council in esteem. And Athens was well governed in these periods; for during this time it occurred that the people practised military duties and won high esteem among the Greeks and gained the supremacy of the sea against the will of the Lacedaemonians.
[…] [25] By these means the people were provided with their food-supply. The constitution remained under the leadership of the Areopagites for about seventeen years after the Persian War, although it was being gradually modified. But as the population increased, Ephialtes son of Sophonides, having become head of the People and having the reputation of being incorruptible and just in regard to the constitution, attacked the Council. [2] First he made away with many of the Areopagites by bringing legal proceedings against them about their acts of administration; then in the archonship of Conon he stripped the Council of all its added powers which made it the safeguard of the constitution, and assigned some of them to the Five Hundred and others to the People and to the jury-courts.

Text zum downloaden

 

Projekttitel: eManual Alte Geschichte
Modul [optional]:
Autor_in: Tobias Nowitzki
Lizenz: CC-BY-NC-SA

Arist. Ath. Pol. 20,1-23,2 und 25,1-2

Leitfragen:

1) Was sind die Kernpunkte der Kleisthenischen Reformen und der nachfolgenden Reformen?

2) Weshalb führen sie zu einer Demokratisierung?

3) Was kann aus der Quelle über die politische Stellung des Kleisthenes gesagt werden?

Kommentar:

In der Schrift des Aristoteles zur Verfassung der Athener aus dem 4. Jahrhundert vor Christus hat sich eine Beschreibung des Verlaufs der Demokratisierung Athens erhalten – besonders interessant aus dem Grund, dass die Athener für ihre Demokratisierung kein Vorbild hatten und die erste Demokratie der Welt erfanden.

Nach Aristoteles beginnt die Demokratisierung Athens mit den sogenannten Kleisthenischen Reformen. Kleisthenes hatte einen inneraristokratischen Machtkampf mit Hilfe des Volkes für sich entschieden und begann nun, die Phylen zu reformieren und damit die Struktur der Bevölkerung. Er schuf 10 Phylen, weshalb die Bürger allesamt neu aufgeteilt werden mussten. In Zuge dieser Maßnahme trat auch seine Trittyenregelung in Kraft: Stadt, Land und Küste wurden in jeweils zehn Bezirke eingeteilt, jede der zehn neuen Phylen bekam dann je eine Trittye aus allen drei Gegenden zugewiesen. So setzten sich die Phylen aus Bewohnern aus ganz Attika zusammen – eine sinnvolle Maßnahme, da die Peisistratiden sich im Wesentlichen auf die Landbevölkerung gestützt hatten. Mit den neuen Phylen konnte jedoch kein Bevölkerungsteil mehr die anderen Teile übervorteilen, was zu größerer Gleichheit führte. Der nächste wichtige Punkt war der Ostrakismos, das Scherbengericht. Mit dieser Maßnahme konnte das Volk in der Ekklesia missliebige Aristokraten aus der Stadt verbannen, was Demagogen verhindern sollte. Diesen Zweck erfüllte das Gesetz auch zum Teil, aber es wurde auch in vielen Fällen als Waffe im inneraristokratischen Wettstreit genutzt oder vom Volk, um sich nachträglich von der Schuld an unklugen Entscheidungen „freizusprechen“. Später wurde dann unter Ephialtes der Areopag, der Adelsrat der Stadt, weitgehend entmachtet und die Befugnisse zwischen Ekklesia und Boule aufgeteilt, was die Macht der Aristokraten noch weiter beschnitt. Der erste große Demokratisierungsprozess war damit vorerst abgeschlossen.

Er kam in Gang, weil wesentliche Machtbasen der Aristokratie (der Areopag und die alten Phylen) in der ursprünglichen Form nicht mehr existierten. Auch war eine Tyrannis auf Basis einer einzelnen Bevölkerungsgruppe nicht mehr ohne Weiteres möglich. Ferner mussten die Aristokraten nun vor der Gefahr des Exils auf der Hut sein, die stets durch den Ostrakismos über ihnen schwebte.

Interessant an dieser Quelle ist auch die Intention, die Aristoteles Kleisthenes zuschreibt. Der „Erfinder“ der Demokratie unternahm die Reformen mitnichten aus dem tiefen Wunsch nach gleichberechtigter Herrschaft des Volkes, sondern nutzte sie vielmehr als Waffe im inneraristokratischen Machtkampf. Indem er sich auf das Volk stützte, hatte er eine Machtbasis, die der seines Feindes Isagoras bei Weitem überlegen war. Und den Ostrakismos ersann er, um andere eigene Feinde loszuwerden. Man kann nicht so weit gehen, die erste Demokratie einen „Unfall“ zu nennen, da Kleisthenes sicher wusste, was er tat, auch wenn er die Folgen nicht abschätzen konnte. Aber es ist durchaus richtig zu sagen, dass die Herrschaft des Volkes „von oben“ errichtet wurde und zwar nicht aufgrund innerer Überzeugung, sondern aus taktischen Gründen.

Text zum downloaden

Podcast-Hinweise
Sehen Sie zu dieser Quelle auch den Podcast „Die athenische Demokratie“. Um einen breiteren Einblick in die griechische Klassik  zu erhalten, sehen Sie auch die Podcastreihe „Griechische Geschichte II – Klassik“.
Hier geht’s zum Podcast

 

Zum Ostrakismos siehe auch den Bericht über den Ostrakismos des Themistokles (http://emanualaltegeschichte.blogs.uni-hamburg.de/ostrakismus-des-themistokles/). Zum schwierigen Verhältnis von Oberschicht und Demokratie in Athen siehe auch die Berichte über die 30 Tyrannen (http://emanualaltegeschichte.blogs.uni-hamburg.de/xenophon-zu-den-30-tyrannen/, http://emanualaltegeschichte.blogs.uni-hamburg.de/30-tyrannen/) und die Liturgien (http://emanualaltegeschichte.blogs.uni-hamburg.de/liturgie/).