Tod des Saturninus

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App. Civ. 1,27-32 – Original

[27] καὶ ἡ στάσις ἡ τοῦ δευτέρου Γράκχου ἐς τάδε ἔληγε: νόμος τε οὐ πολὺ ὕστερον ἐκυρώθη τὴν γῆν, ὑπὲρ ἧς διεφέροντο, ἐξεῖναι πιπράσκειν τοῖς ἔχουσιν: ἀπείρητο γὰρ ἐκ Γράκχου τοῦ προτέρου καὶ τόδε. καὶ εὐθὺς οἱ πλούσιοι παρὰ τῶν πενήτων ἐωνοῦντο, ἢ ταῖσδε ταῖς προφάσεσιν ἐβιάζοντο. καὶ περιῆν ἐς χεῖρον ἔτι τοῖς πένησι, μέχρι Σπούριος Θόριος δημαρχῶν εἰσηγήσατο νόμον, τὴν μὲν γῆν μηκέτι διανέμειν, ἀλλ᾽ εἶναι τῶν ἐχόντων, καὶ φόρους ὑπὲρ αὐτῆς τῷ δήμῳ κατατίθεσθαι καὶ τάδε τὰ χρήματα χωρεῖν ἐς διανομάς. ὅπερ ἦν μέν τις τοῖς πένησι παρηγορία διὰ τὰς διανομάς, ὄφελος δ᾽ οὐδὲν ἐς πολυπληθίαν. ἅπαξ δὲ τοῖς σοφίσμασι τοῖσδε τοῦ Γρακχείου νόμου παραλυθέντος, ἀρίστου καὶ ὠφελιμωτάτου, εἰ ἐδύνατο πραχθῆναι, γενομένου, καὶ τοὺς φόρους οὐ πολὺ ὕστερον διέλυσε δήμαρχος ἔτερος, καὶ ὁ δῆμος ἀθρόως ἁπάντων ἐξεπεπτώκει. ὅθεν ἐσπάνιζον ἔτι μᾶλλον ὁμοῦ πολιτῶν τε καὶ στρατιωτῶν καὶ γῆς προσόδου καὶ διανομῶν καὶ νομῶν, πεντεκαίδεκα μάλιστα ἔτεσιν ἀπὸ τῆς Γράκχου νομοθεσίας, ἐπὶ δίκαις ἐν ἀργίᾳ γεγονότες. [28] τῷ δ᾽ αὐτῷ χρόνῳ Σκιπίων ὕπατος καθεῖλε τὸ θέατρον, οὗ Λεύκιος Κάσσιος ἦρκτο ῾καὶ ἤδη που τέλος ἐλάμβανεν̓, ὡς καὶ τόδε στάσεων ἄρξον ἑτέρων ἢ οὐ χρήσιμον ὅλως Ἑλληνικαῖς ἡδυπαθείαις Ῥωμαίους ἐθίζεσθαι. τιμητὴς δὲ Κόιντος Καικίλιος Μέτελλος Γλαυκίαν τε βουλεύοντα καὶ Ἀπουλήιον Σατορνῖνον δεδημαρχηκότα ἤδη τῆς ἀξιώσεως παρέλυεν, αἰσχρῶς βιοῦντας, οὐ μὴν ἐδυνήθη: ὁ γάρ οἱ συνάρχων οὐ συνέθετο. μικρὸν οὖν ὕστερον ὁ Ἀπουλήιος ὡς ἀμυνούμενος τὸν Μέτελλον ἐς ἑτέραν παρήγγελλε δημαρχίαν, φυλάξας στρατηγοῦντα τὸν Γλαυκίαν καὶ τῆσδε τῶν δημάρχων τῆς χειροτονίας προεστῶτα. Νώνιος μὲν οὖν, ἐπιφανὴς ἀνήρ, ἔς τε τὸν Ἀπουλήιον παρρησίᾳ χρώμενος καὶ Γλαυκίαν ἐξονειδίζων δήμαρχος ἀπεδείχθη. δείσαντες δ᾽ ὁ Γλαυκίας καὶ ὁ Ἀπουλήιος, μὴ δημαρχῶν αὐτοὺς ἀμύναιτο, ὄχλον ἀνδρῶν εὐθὺς ἀπὸ τῆς ἐκκλησίας ἀπιόντι ἐπιπέμπουσι σὺν θορύβῳ καὶ ἔς τι πανδοχεῖον συμφυγόντα κατεκέντησαν. τοῦ δὲ πάθους οἰκτροῦ καὶ δεινοῦ φανέντος οἱ περὶ τὸν Γλαυκίαν, οὔπω τοῦ δήμου συνελθόντος, ἅμ᾽ ἕῳ χειροτονοῦσι δήμαρχον τὸν Ἀπουλήιον. [29] ἐξηλάθη δὲ καὶ Μέτελλος ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν, προσλαβόντων Γάιον Μάριον ἕκτην ἄρχοντα ὑπατείαν, ἐχθρὸν ἀφανῆ τοῦ Μετέλλου. καὶ συνέπραξαν ὧδε ἅπαντες ἀλλήλοις. ὁ μὲν Ἀπουλήιος νόμον ἐσέφερε διαδάσασθαι γῆν, ὅσην ἐν τῇ νῦν ὑπὸ Ῥωμαίων καλουμένῃ Γαλατίᾳ Κίμβροι γένος Κελτῶν κατειλήφεσαν, καὶ αὐτοὺς ὁ Μάριος ἔναγχος ἐξελάσας τὴν γῆν ὡς οὐκέτι Γαλατῶν ἐς Ῥωμαίους περιεσπάκει. προσέκειτο δέ, εἰ κυρώσειε τὸν νόμον ὁ δῆμος, τὴν βουλὴν πένθ᾽ ἡμέραις ἐπομόσαι πεισθήσεσθαι τῷ νόμῳ, ἢ τὸν οὐκ ὀμόσαντα μήτε βουλεύειν καὶ ὀφλεῖν τῷ δήμῳ τάλαντα εἴκοσιν, ὑπονοοῦντες οὕτως ἄλλους τε τῶν δυσχεραινόντων ἀμυνεῖσθαι καὶ Μέτελλον ὑπὸ φρονήματος οὐκ ἐνδώσοντα ἐς τὸν ὅρκον. ὁ μὲν δὴ νόμος ὧδε εἶχεν, καὶ ὁ Ἀπουλήιος ἡμέραν αὐτοῦ τῇ δοκιμασίᾳ προυτίθει καὶ περιέπεμπε τοὺς ἐξαγγέλλοντας τοῖς οὖσιν ἀνὰ τοὺς ἀγρούς, οἷς δὴ καὶ μάλιστ᾽ ἐθάρρουν ὑπεστρατευμένοις Μαρίῳ. πλεονεκτούντων δ᾽, ἐν τῷ νόμῳ τῶν Ἰταλιωτῶν ὁ δῆμος ἐδυσχέραινε. [30] καὶ στάσεως ἐν τῇ κυρίᾳ γενομένης, ὅσοι μὲν ἐκώλυον τῶν δημάρχων τοὺς νόμους, ὑβριζόμενοι πρὸς τοῦ Ἀπουληίου κατεπήδων ἀπὸ τοῦ βήματος, ὁ δὲ πολιτικὸς ὄχλος ἐβόα ὡς γενομένης ἐν ἐκκλησίᾳ βροντῆς, ὅθεν οὐ θέμις ἐστὶ Ῥωμαίοις οὐδὲν ἔτι κυροῦν. βιαζομένων δὲ καὶ ὣς τῶν περὶ τὸν Ἀπουλήιον οἱ πολιτικοὶ τά τε ἱμάτια διαζωσάμενοι καὶ τὰ προστυχόντα ξύλα ἁρπάσαντες τοὺς ἀγροίκους διέστησαν. οἱ δ᾽ αὖθις ὑπὸ τοῦ Ἀπουληίου συγκαλούμενοι μετὰ ξύλων καὶ οἵδε τοῖς ἀστικοῖς ἐπῄεσαν καὶ βιασάμενοι τὸν νόμον ἐκύρωσαν. κυρωθέντος δ᾽ αὐτίκα Μάριος οἷα ὕπατος τῇ βουλῇ προυτίθει σκοπεῖν περὶ τοῦ ὅρκου: καὶ τὸν Μέτελλον εἰδὼς στερρόν τε τῇ γνώμῃ καὶ βέβαιον ἐφ᾽ ὅ τι φρονήσειεν ἢ εἰπεῖν φθάσειεν, ἐτίθει πρῶτος ἐς μέσον τὴν γνώμην τὴν ἑαυτοῦ μετ᾽ ἐνέδρας καὶ ἔλεγεν, ὡς οὔποτε τὸν ὅρκον ἑκὼν τόνδε αὐτὸς ὀμόσει. συναποφηναμένου δὲ ταῦτα καὶ τοῦ Μετέλλου καὶ τῶν ἄλλων αὐτοὺς ἐπαινεσάντων, ὁ Μάριος διέλυσε τὴν βουλήν. εἶτα τῆς πέμπτης ἡμέρας, ἣ τῷ ὅρκῳ τελευταία κατὰ τὸν νόμον ἦν, ἀμφὶ δεκάτην ὥραν αὐτοὺς κατὰ σπουδὴν συναγαγὼν ἔφη τὸν δῆμον ἐσπουδακότα περὶ τὸν νόμον δεδιέναι, μηχανὴν δ᾽ ὁρᾶν καὶ σόφισμα τοιόνδε: ὀμόσειν γάρ, ᾗ νόμος ἐστί, τῷδε πεισθήσεσθαι τῷ νόμῳ, καὶ νῦν μὲν οὕτω διασκεδᾶν τοὺς ἀπὸ τῶν ἀγρῶν ἐνηδρευμένους, ὕστερον δ᾽ οὐ δυσχερῶς ἐπιδείξειν, ὅτι οὐκ ἔστι νόμος ὁ πρὸς βίαν τε καὶ βροντῆς ὠνομασμένης κεκυρωμένος παρὰ τὰ πάτρια. [31] ταῦτα δ᾽ εἰπὼν καὶ τέλος οὐδὲν ἀναμείνας, πάντων ἔτι σιωπώντων ὑπ᾽ ἐκπλήξεως ἐπὶ τῇ ἐνέδρᾳ καὶ τῷ χρόνῳ δεδαπανημένῳ, οὐδ᾽ ἐνθυμηθῆναί τι παρασχὼν αὐτοῖς ἐξανίστατο ἐς τὸν τοῦ Κρόνου νεών, οὗ τοῖς ταμίαις ἐχρῆν ὀμνύναι, καὶ ὤμνυε σὺν τοῖς φίλοις πρῶτος. ὤμνυον δὲ καὶ οἱ λοιποί, τὸ ἑαυτοῦ δεδιὼς ἕκαστος: Μέτελλος δ᾽ οὐκ ὤμοσε μόνος, ἀλλ᾽ ἐπὶ τῆς ἑαυτοῦ προαιρέσεως διέμεινεν ἀφόβως. καὶ αὐτὸν εὐθὺς τῆς ἐπιούσης ὁ Ἀπουλήιος ἐπιπέμψας τὸν ὑπηρέτην ἐξεῖλκεν ἀπὸ τοῦ βουλευτηρίου. ῥυομένων δὲ τῶν ἑτέρων δημάρχων, ὁ Γλαυκίας καὶ ὁ Ἀπουλήιος ἐς τοὺς ἀγροίκους ἐκδραμόντες οὐκ ἔφασκον αὐτοῖς ἔσεσθαι τὴν γῆν οὐδὲ τὸν νόμον κύριον, εἰ μὴ Μέτελλος ἐξελαθείη. ψήφισμά τε φυγῆς ἐπέγραφον αὐτῷ καὶ τοὺς ὑπάτους ἐπικηρῦξαι προσετίθεσαν μηδένα Μετέλλῳ κοινωνεῖν πυρὸς ἢ ὕδατος ἢ στέγης: ἔς τε τὴν δοκιμασίαν τοῦδε τοῦ ψηφίσματος ἡμέραν προύγραφον. δεινῆς δὲ τῶν ἀστικῶν ἀγανακτήσεως οὔσης καὶ παραπεμπόντων Μέτελλον αἰεὶ σὺν ξιφιδίοις, ὁ Μέτελλος αὐτοὺς ἀσπασάμενος καὶ ἐπαινέσας τῆς προαιρέσεως οὐκ ἔφη δι᾽ ἑαυτὸν ἐάσειν οὐδένα κίνδυνον ἐπιγενέσθαι τῇ πατρίδι. καὶ τόδε εἰπὼν ὑπεξῆλθε τῆς πόλεως. καὶ τὸ ψήφισμα ὁ Ἀπουλήιος ἐκύρου, καὶ τὰ ἐν τῷ ψηφίσματι Μάριος ἐπεκήρυττεν. [32] οὕτω μὲν δὴ καὶ Μέτελλος, ἀνὴρ εὐδοκιμώτατος, ἔφευγε, καὶ ὁ Ἀπουλήιος ἐπ᾽ αὐτῷ τρίτον ἐδημάρχει. καί τις αὐτῷ συνῆρχε δραπέτης εἶναι νομιζόμενος, Γράκχον ἑαυτῷ τὸν πρεσβύτερον πατέρα ἐπιγράφων. καὶ τὸ πλῆθος αὐτῷ συνεπεπράχει περὶ τὴν χειροτονίαν πόθῳ Γράκχου. προτεθείσης δὲ ὑπάτων χειροτονίας, Μᾶρκος μὲν Ἀντώνιος ἐπὶ τὴν ἑτέραν ἀναμφιλόγως ᾑρέθη, τὴν δὲ ὑπόλοιπον Γλαυκίας ὅδε καὶ Μέμμιος μετῄεσαν. Μεμμίου δ᾽ ὄντος ἐπιδοξοτέρου παρὰ πολύ, δείσας ὁ Γλαυκίας καὶ ὁ Ἀπουλήιος ἐπιπέμπουσί τινας αὐτῷ σὺν ξύλοις ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ χειροτονίᾳ, οἳ τὸν Μέμμιον παίοντες ἐν μέσῳ πάντων ὁρώντων συνέκοψαν.
καὶ ἡ μὲν ἐκκλησία θορυβηθεῖσα διελύετο οὔτε νόμων οὔτε δικαστηρίων οὔτε τινὸς αἰδοῦς ἔτι ὑπούσης: ὁ δὲ δῆμος ἀγανακτῶν ἐς τὴν ἐπιοῦσαν ἡμέραν μετ᾽ ὀργῆς συνέτρεχεν ὡς κτενοῦντες τὸν Ἀπουλήιον. ὁ δ᾽ ἄλλο πλῆθος ἁλίσας ἀπὸ τῶν ἀγρῶν μετὰ Γλαυκίου καὶ Γαΐου Σαυφηίου ταμίου τὸ Καπιτώλιον κατέλαβε. καὶ αὐτοὺς τῆς βουλῆς ἀναιρεθῆναι ψηφισαμένης ὁ Μάριος ἀχθόμενος ὅμως ὥπλιζέ τινας σὺν ὄκνῳ: καὶ βραδύνοντος ἕτεροι τὸ ὕδωρ τὸ ἐπιρρέον ἐς τὸ ἱερὸν διέτεμον. καὶ Σαυφήιος μὲν ἐμπρῆσαι τὸν νεών, ὑπὸ δίψης ἀπολλύμενος, ἠξίου, Γλαυκίας δὲ καὶ Ἀπουλήιος ἐλπίσαντες αὑτοῖς ἐπικουρήσειν Μάριον παρέδωκαν ἑαυτούς, οἵδε πρῶτοι, καὶ ἐπ᾽ ἐκείνοις ὁ Σαυφήιος. Μάριος δ᾽, αὐτίκα πάντων αὐτοὺς ἀναιρεῖν κελευόντων, ἐς τὸ βουλευτήριον συνέκλεισεν ὡς ἐννομώτερον ἐργασόμενος. οἱ δὲ πρόφασιν τοῦτ᾽ εἶναι νομίσαντες τὸν κέραμον ἐξέλυον τοῦ βουλευτηρίου καὶ τοὺς ἀμφὶ τὸν Ἀπουλήιον ἔβαλλον, ἔως ἀπέκτειναν, ταμίαν τε καὶ δήμαρχον καὶ στρατηγόν, ἔτι περικειμένους τὰ σύμβολα τῆς ἀρχῆς.
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Übersetzung: Horace White
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Übersetzung

[28] About this time the consul Scipio [Nasica] demolished the theatre begun by Lucius Cassius, and now nearly finished, because he considered this also the source of new seditions or because he thought it not altogether desirable that the Romans should become accustomed to Grecian pleasures. The censor, Quintus Cæcelius Metellus, attempted to degrade Glaucia, a senator, and Apuleius Saturninus, who had already been a tribune, on account of their disgraceful mode of life, but was not able to do so because his colleague would not agree to it. Accordingly Saturninus, a little later, in order to have revenge on Metellus, became a candidate for the tribuneship again, seizing the occasion when Glaucia held the office of prætor and presided over the election of the tribunes; but Nonius, a man of noble birth, who used much plainness of speech in reference to Saturninus and reproached Glaucia bitterly, was chosen for the office. As they feared lest he should punish them as tribune, they made a rush upon him with a crowd of ruffians just as he was going away from the comitia, pursued him into a certain inn, and stabbed him. As this murder had a pitiful and shocking aspect, the adherents of Glaucia came together early the next morning, before the people had assembled, and declared Saturninus elected tribune. In this way the killing of Nonius was hushed up, since everybody was afraid to call Saturninus to account because he was a tribune. [29] Metellus was banished by them at the instigation of Gaius Marius, who was then in his sixth consulship, and was the secret enemy of Metellus. Thus they all helped each other. Saturninus brought forward a law to divide the land which the Cimbri (a Celtic tribe lately driven out by Marius) had seized in the country now called Gaul by the Romans, and which was considered as no longer Gallic but Roman territory. It was provided also in this law that if the people should enact it the senators should take an oath within five days to obey it, and that any one who should refuse to do so should be expelled from the Senate and should pay a fine of twenty talents for the benefit of the people. Thus they intended to punish those who should take it with a bad grace, and especially Metellus, who was too high-spirited to submit to the oath. Such was the proposed law. Saturninus appointed the day for holding the comitia and sent messengers to summon from the country districts those in whom he had most confidence, because they had served in the army under Marius. As the law gave the larger share to the Italian allies the city people were not pleased with it. [30] Sedition broke out in the comitia. Those who attempted to prevent the passage of the laws proposed by the tribunes were assaulted by Saturninus and driven away from the rostra. The city folks exclaimed that thunder was heard in the assembly, in which case it is not permitted by Roman custom to finish the business that day. As the adherents of Saturninus persisted nevertheless, the city people girded themselves, seized whatever clubs they could lay their hands on, and dispersed the rustics. The latter were rallied by Saturninus; they attacked the city folks with clubs, overcame them, and passed the law. When this was done Marius, in his capacity as consul, forthwith proposed to the Senate that they consider concerning taking the oath. Knowing that Metellus was a man of fixed opinion and firm in whatever he might believe or commit himself to, he gave his own opinion publicly, but deceitfully, saying that he would never willingly take this oath himself. When Metellus had agreed with him in this, and the others had praised them both, Marius adjourned the Senate. On the fifth day thereafter (the last day prescribed in the law for taking the oath) he called them together in haste about the tenth hour, saying that he was afraid of the people because they were so zealous for the law. He saw a way, however, to avoid it, and he proposed the following trick–to swear that they would obey the law as far as it was a law, and thus at once disperse the country people by stratagem. Afterward it could be easily shown that this thing, which had been enacted by violence and in spite of thunder, contrary to the custom of their ancestors, was not a law.
[31] After speaking thus he did not wait for the result, but while all were in silent amazement at the plot, and confused because there was no time to be lost and no opportunity for thinking, he rose and went to the temple of Saturn, where the quæstors were accustomed to administer oaths, and took the oath first with his friends. The rest followed his example, as each one feared for his own safety. Metellus alone refused to swear, but stood fearlessly by his first determination. Saturninus proceeded against him at once on the next day. He sent an officer for him and dragged him out of the senate-house. As the other tribunes defended him Glaucia and Saturninus hastened to the country people and told them that they would never get the land, and that the law would not be executed, unless Metellus were banished. They proposed a decree of banishment against him and directed the consuls to interdict fire and water and shelter to him, and appointed a day for the ratification of this decree. Great was the indignation of the city people, who constantly escorted Metellus, carrying daggers. He thanked them and praised them for their good intentions, but said that he could not allow any danger to befall the country on his account. After saying this he withdrew from the city. Saturninus got the decree ratified, and Marius made proclamation that it was a part of the law.
[32] In this way was Metellus, a most admirable man, sent into banishment. Thereupon Saturninus was made tribune a third time and he had for a colleague one who was thought to be a fugitive slave, but who claimed to be a son of the elder Gracchus. The multitude supported him in the election because they regretted Gracchus. When the election for consuls came on Marcus Antonius was chosen as one of them by common consent. The aforesaid Glaucia and Memmius contended for the other place. Memmius was the more illustrious man by far, and Glaucia and Saturninus were fearful of the result. So they sent a gang of ruffians to attack him with clubs while the election was going on. They fell upon him in the midst of the comitia and beat him to death in the sight of all. The assembly was broken up in terror. Neither laws nor courts nor sense of shame remained. The people ran together in anger the following day intending to kill Saturninus, but he had collected another mob from the country and, with Glaucia and Gaius Saufeius, the quæstor, seized the Capitol. The Senate voted them public enemies. Marius was vexed; nevertheless he armed some of his forces reluctantly, and, while he was delaying, some other persons cut off the water-supply from the Capitoline temple. Saufeius was near perishing with thirst and proposed to set the temple on fire, but Glaucia and Saturninus, who hoped that Marius would assist them, surrendered first, and after them Saufeius. As everybody demanded that they should be put to death, Marius shut them up in the senate-house as though he intended to deal with them in a more legal manner. The crowd considered this a mere pretext. They tore the tiles off the roof and stoned them to death, including a quæstor, a tribune, and a prætor, who were still wearing their insignia of office.

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App. Civ. 1,27-32

Leitfragen:

1) Wie schildert Appian den Gang der Ereignisse bis zum Tod des Saturninus und seiner Verbündeten?

2) Von welcher Seite geht in diesem Fall die politisch motivierte Gewalt aus?

3) Inwiefern zeichnen sich in diesen Ereignissen bereits die Gründe für den späteren Untergang der Republik ab?

Kommentar:

Appian, ein griechischer Autor von der Wende des ersten zum zweiten nachchristlichen Jahrhundert, schildert uns in diesem Abschnitt seines bellum civile, wie es zum Tod des Volkstribunen Saturninus im Jahre 100 v. Chr. kam.

Beginn der Auseinandersetzung war nach Appian neben den politischen Streitigkeiten zwischen Optimaten und Popularen ein persönlicher Streit zwischen dem Zensor Metellus und dem Tribunen Saturninus, den der Zensor aus dem Senat entfernen wollte. Als Rache für diesen Versuch wollte Saturninus ein Gesetz durch die Volksversammlung bringen, das Metellus gezwungen hätte einen Eid zu schwören, von dem Saturninus wusste, dass er es nie tun würde. Dies konnte er jedoch nur bewerkstelligen, wenn er erneut als Tribun gewählt würde, was eigentlich verboten war. Aber er sammelte seine Verbündeten, ermordete kurzerhand den Mitbewerber und wurde daraufhin von einem Verbündeten zum Tribun erklärt. Der Konsul Marius versuchte, nachdem das Gesetz verabschiedet worden war, die Landbevölkerung, die für das Gesetz war, mit einem Trick wieder aus der Stadt zu bekommen, was ihm aber kaum gelang. Metellus, der den Eid als einziger nicht schwor, wurde verbannt, obwohl die Stadtbewohner versuchten, ihn mit Waffengewalt zu beschützen und es bei der Verabschiedung des Gesetzes bereits zu Kämpfen in der Wahlversammlung gekommen war. Um einen seiner Verbündeten zum Konsul machen zu können, ermordete Saturninus mit seinen Männern den aussichtsreicheren Bewerber in der Volksversammlung vor aller Augen. Aufgrund der Gegengewalt der Stadtbewohner verschanzte er sich auf dem Kapitol, wie es auch schon die Gracchen getan hatten. Marius wollte die Situation entschärfen und einen Prozess gegen die Mörder anstrengen statt der Lynchjustiz den Weg zu ebnen, doch der Mob steinigte die Männer mit Dachziegeln in dem Tempel zu Tode, in dem sie Zuflucht gesucht hatten.

In diesen verworrenen Ereignissen zeichnet sich bereits ab, dass politisch motivierte Gewalt von allen Seiten ausging. Saturninus‘ Männer ermorden zwei Politiker während der Wahlversammlungen, in der Volksversammlung prügeln sich Stadtbewohner und Landbevölkerung gegenseitig von der Rednertribüne, und am Ende ist der Mob der Stadtbewohner so entfesselt, dass auch der Konsul die Gewalt nicht mehr im Zaum halten kann, und die wütende Menge sogar das Tempelasyl missachtet.

An dieser Quellenstelle zeigen sich auch bereits einige Gründe, die zum späteren Untergang der Republik beitrugen. Jetzt, 20 Jahre nach dem Tod der Gracchen, war Gewalt so selbstverständlich zum Mittel der politischen Auseinandersetzung geworden, dass nur besonders auffällige Taten wie der offene Mord an einem Bewerber während der Wahlversammlung noch eine Steigerung darstellten.

Saturninus und seine Taten als Tribun waren einer der Gründe, weswegen Sulla später dieses Amt weitestgehend entmachtete.

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Podcast-Hinweise
Sehen Sie zu dieser Quelle auch den Podcast „Sulla und das Zeitalter der Bürgerkriege“. Um einen breiteren Einblick in das Zeitalter der Römischen Republik  zu erhalten, sehen Sie auch die Podcastreihe „Römische Geschichte I – Republik“.
Hier geht’s zum Podcast

 

Siehe zu weiteren Gründen des Unterganges der Republik auch den Bericht des Sallust (http://emanualaltegeschichte.blogs.uni-hamburg.de/moralische-gruende-des-buergerkriegs/) oder den zu Sullas Marsch auf Rom (http://emanualaltegeschichte.blogs.uni-hamburg.de/sullas-marsch-auf-rom/)